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Full text of "The History Of Western Education"

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unified and bound together. When this is done education ceases
to be a mere aggregate of separate branches of instruction." The
idea is that there should be certain central subjects forming the
core of the school work, and that all the other subjects should be
taught in connection with them. Applying this, Ziller carried
Herbart's preference for the humanistic subjects even further than
Herbart, and made secular and sacred history the main occupation
of the school To illustrate. For the sixth school year, the
religious subject is the life of Christ, the secular is the story of
Columbus and the explorers of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth
Centuries, and the life of Luther. The relation between Christ
and Luther is easily brought out. The connection between
Christ and the explorers is less obvious, but it is found in the fact
that the kingdom of heaven has a place in it for the heathen of the
East and the West, whom the explorers discovered in the course
of their journeys. The whole school programme is then brought
into relation to these fundamental themes. In drawing, for
example, the figures proper to this stage are circles, ellipses, ovals
and their parts : Ziller suggests that marine plants and animals,
such as the explorers might have seen, furnish examples of these
forms. For nature study, the voyages of Columbus provide
abundant material. From the great meadows of seaweed found
by him in the Sargasso Sea, it is easy to pass to the algae and to
oceanic vegetation in general. The landing of Columbus at the
Bahama Islands suggests lessons on the corals, sponges, and
sharks which abound in the neighbouring seas. In arithmetic,
where the subject for this stage is fractions, the divisions of the
compass which the explorers used to find their way permit an
easy beginning. Geometry also starts with the compass.

The idea of a detailed correlation of studies with a view to
moral effect, though an addition to the original Herbartian
pedagogy, was quite consistent with its fundamental principles.
It is doubtful whether that can be'said about the idea of culture
epochs which Ziller employed in conjunction with it to determine
the sequence of school work. The hypothesis of a correspondence
between individual and racial stages in mental development,
which had been applied to education in a very general way by
Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Froebel, found no countenance from
Herbart, probably because it implied a determination of the soul
from within which was incompatible with his psychology. To